STUDIES AVAILABLE OF NEEM
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Division of Biopesticides and Environmental Toxicology, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Sciences (SPKCES), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Alwarkurichi, 627 412 Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India; Plant Environment Division, Honam Agricultural Research Institute (HARI), National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), #381 Songhak-dong, Iksan, Chonbuk 570-080, Republic of Korea.
The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema((R))) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45ml/L for nymph and 4.42ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18ml/L for nymph and 5.63ml/L for adult in Neema((R)) treatment) and LC(90) (8.72ml/L for nymph and 11.1ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84ml/L for nymph and 13.07ml/L for adult in Neema((R)) treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema((R)) took more than 48h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema((R))), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens.
PMID: 19500844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
PMID: 19500429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical & Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan. email@example.com
The azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, azadiradione and epoxyazadiradione contents were determined by HPLC in the fractions prepared from the kernel of neem fruits (Azadirachta indica) collected at different ripening stages. The fully mature fruit (yellow fruits) kernels contained the highest concentration of azadirachtin, nimbin and salannin, whereas the concentration of azadiradione (NC) and epoxyazadiradione (NL) was high in the unripe green berries. The toxicity of the fractions (KEA-1 to KEA-5) obtained from the kernels collected at successive intervals, as well as of the pure limonoids referred to above was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (wild strain). It was observed that the toxicity of these fractions increased with the maturity of the fruits. An interesting observation was that the toxicities of KEA-3 to KEA-5 are comparable and the concentration of all the major limonoids is optimum in KEA-3, which suggested that these exert a joint effect against Aedes aegypti.
PMID: 19475987 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention for their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. However, the antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of neem limonoids have not been tested in animal tumour models. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relative chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by analyzing the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21(waf1), cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), NF-kappaB, inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB), p53, Fas, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, survivin, caspases-3, -6, -8 and -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide mediate their antiproliferative effects by downregulating proteins involved in cell cycle progression and transduce apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.
PMID: 19458912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
College of Animal Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, PR China; Department of Biological Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin 644007, PR China.
Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5h of exposure at a concentration of 200mgml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1mgml(-1) at 24h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3h at a concentration of 7.5mgml(-1).
PMID: 19443124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
We evaluated the chemopreventive potential of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MF) of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Estradiol and estrogen receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities, redox status, DNA and protein modifications, and the expression of cell proliferation, and apoptosis related proteins in the mammary gland and liver were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Administration of both EAF and MF at a dose of 10mg/kgbw effectively suppressed tumour incidence. Chemoprevention by neem leaf fractions was associated with modulation of hormone and receptor status, xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, and lipid and protein oxidation, with upregulation of antioxidants, inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, protein modification, and cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. However EAF rich in constituent phytochemicals was more effective than MF in modulating multiple molecular targets. These results provide evidence for the chemopreventive efficacy of neem leaf fractions in the rat mammary tumour model.
PMID: 19427891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Méndez-Bautista J, Fernández-Luqueño F, López-Valdez F, Mendoza-Cristino R, Montes-Molina JA, Gutierrez-Miceli FA, Dendooven L.
Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F, Mexico.
Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.
PMID: 19427016 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
BACKGROUNDS: Extract of neem leaves is commonly consumed as an antimalarial therapy. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of neem leaves on the histology of the ovary and also on serum levels of FSH and LH in female Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of eighteen (18) rats weighing 110g-150g were used. They were randomly divided into three groups (A, B, and C) of six rats each. Group A: served as control and received distilled water equivalent in volume to the test extract. Group B: was treated with 200mg/kg of the methanolic extract of neem leaves. Group C: received 400mg/kg of the methanolic extract of neem leaves. Administration was by gavage and lasted for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: Histological sections of the experimental groups revealed no histopathological features. No statistically significant difference was observed in the serum levels of FSH in the treated groups. However, serum levels of LH were significantly reduced when compared with the control. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that extract of neem leaves may affect fertility adversely by reducing serum levels of LH and subsequently, the release of ova during ovulation.
PMID: 19391318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
The neem tree has attracted considerable research attention as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of the neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide based on in vitro antioxidant assays and in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide exhibited concentration-dependent anti-radical scavenging activity and reductive potential in the order: nimbolide > azadirachtin > ascorbate. Administration of both azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by influencing multiple mechanisms including prevention of procarcinogen activation and oxidative DNA damage, upregulation of antioxidant and carcinogen detoxification enzymes and inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis. On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer.
PMID: 19391054 [PubMed - in process]
Division of Public Oral Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A significant increase in the proportion of restorations to the number of tooth extractions was reported after the introduction of ART in an academic mobile dental service in South Africa. The changes were ascribed to its less threatening procedure. Based on these findings, ART was subsequently introduced into the public oral health service of Ekurhuleni district in the South African province of Gauteng. This article reports on the 5-year restorative treatment pattern of operators in the Ekurhuleni district, who adopted the ART approach into their daily dental practice. METHODS: Of the 21 trained operators, 11 had placed more than 10% of restorations using ART at year 1 and were evaluated after 5 years. Data, including number of restored and extracted teeth and type of restoration, were drawn from clinical records 4 months before, and up to 5 years after training. The restoration/extraction ratio (REX score) and the proportion of ART restorations to the total number of restorations were calculated. The paired sample t-test and linear regression analysis were applied. RESULTS: The mean percentage of ART restorations after 1 year was 24.0% (SE 7.2) and significantly increased annually to 42.7% (SE 9.2) after 5 years in permanent dentitions. In primary dentitions the mean percentage of ART restorations after 1 year was 80.6% (SE 4.9) and 72.6% (SE 8.8) after 5 years. The mean REX score before ART training was 0.08 (SE 0.03) and 0.07 (SE 0.04) for permanent and primary teeth, respectively and 0.11 (SE 0.03) and 0.17 (SE 0.05) after 5 years. CONCLUSION: Five years after training, ART had been used consistently in this selected group of operators as the predominant restorative treatment used for primary teeth and showed a significant annual increase in permanent teeth. However, this change had not resulted in an increase in the REX score in both dentitions.
PMID: 19383133 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2674427
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.
BACKGROUND: The search for a relatively cheap, widely available, widely accepted and effective contraceptive of plant origin; that is equally non-invasive in administration, non-hormonal in action, non-toxic and that is relatively long-acting, generated our interest in this study (in order to meet the increasing need for population control). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alcoholic extract of Neem flowers on the estrous cycle, ovulation, fertility and foetal morphology of cyclic adult Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 140-180 g were used. There were 3 main experimental groups. Group 1 rats received 1 g/kg of alcoholic extract of Neem flower by gavage for 3 weeks and the effect on estrous cycle studied. Group 2 rats were administered 1 g/kg of Neem flower alcoholic extract at 9 a.m. and at 6 p.m. on proestrus and the effect on the number of ova shed on the morning of estrus observed. Rats in Group 3 were treated with 1 g/kg of alcoholic extract of Neem flower on days 1 to 5 postcoitum, and observation was made for anti-implantation / abortifacient effects and possible teratogenic effects on the foetuses. All the groups were control-matched. RESULTS: The estrous cycle of 80% of the rats was altered with a marked prolongation of the diestrus phase. Neem flower caused a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the number of ova shed in the morning of estrus in rats fed with the extract at 9 a.m. on proestrus. Neither anti-implantation / abortifacient nor teratogenic effect was observed in the rats treated with Neem flower. CONCLUSION: Administration of alcoholic extract of Neem flower disrupted the estrous cycle in Sprague-Dawley rats and caused a partial block in ovulation and thus has the potential of being developed into a female contraceptive.
PMID: 19357745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2583274
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia Agrícola. email@example.com
Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 degrees C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Boüin s aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxilin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron.
PMID: 19347100 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Immunoregulation and Immunodiagnostics, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India.
BACKGROUND: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is widely regarded as a wonder tree because of its diverse medicinal applications. We investigated the ability of neem leaf preparation (NLP) to protect against apoptosis of circulating blood cells induced by cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (cis + 5-FU) in carcinoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Apoptosis was studied by annexin V-propidium iodide method. Total white blood cell count was performed using 3% glacial acetic acid on hemocytometer. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release assay and T/NK cell status was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In comparison to untreated control, during cis + 5-FU therapy, significant down-regulation of leukocyte apoptosis was noted in mice pretreated with NLP or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) during cis + 5-FU therapy. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be associated with NLP-induced increase of the cytotoxic T and NK cell pool. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy of NLP is comparable to GCSF in its ability to protect against leukocyte apoptosis induced by cis + 5-FU. NLP would be a better choice of treatment because GCSF is tumor promoting, angiogenic and expensive. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
PMID: 19346744 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Biochemistry, State University of Maringá. PR, Brasil.
The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth.
PMID: 19325825 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2635761
Department of Immunoregulation and Immunodiagnostics, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata, India.
We have demonstrated augmentation of the CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) and CD8+CD56_ T-cell-mediated tumor cell cytotoxicity by neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP). These NK and T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with a state of immunosuppression. NLGP induces TCRalphabeta-associated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reaction to kill oral cancer (KB) cells. This CTL reaction is assisted by NLGP-mediated up-regulation of CD28 on T cells and HLA-ABC, CD80/86 on monocytes. CTL-mediated killing of KB cells and NK-cell-mediated killing of K562 (erythroleukemic) cells are associated with activation of these cells by NLGP. This activation is evidenced by increased expression of early activation marker CD69 with altered expression of CD45RO/CD45RA. NLGP is a strong inducer of IFNgamma from both T and NK cells; however, IFNgamma regulates the T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity only without affecting NK-cell-mediated one. Reason of this differential regulation may lie within up-regulated expression of IFNgamma-receptor on T-cell surface, not on NK cells. This NLGP-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on up-regulated perforin/granzyme B expression in killer cells, which is again IFNgamma dependent in T cells and independent in NK cells. Although, FasL expression is increased by NLGP, it may not be truly linked with the cytotoxic functions, as brefeldin A could not block such NLGP-mediated cytotoxicity, like, concanamycin A, a perforin inhibitor. On the basis of these results, we conclude that NLGP might be effective to recover the suppressed cytotoxic functions of NK and T cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
PMID: 19307993 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dipartimento di Tossicologia, Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Persistence of azadirachtins (A+B) and of the other limonoids (nimbin, salannin, deacetylnimbin, and deacetylsalannin) on peach leaves and fruits was studied using a commercial formulation (form. C) compared with an experimental formulation (form. E) prepared with coformulations allowed in organic culture. Field experiments were carried out using three concentrations: 1x, 5x, and 10x the dose recommended by the manufacturer. The EU maximum residue level (MRL) in fruits and vegetables for azadirachtin A is 1 mg/kg with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 3 days. At the recommended dose, azadirachtin A residue on fruits was not detectable (LOQ < 0.8 microg/kg). After field treatment at the 5x concentration, azadirachtoids were found with 22% in the epicuticular waxes and the remaining 78% on the fruit surface. No residues were found in the fruit pulp. The experimental formulation (E) produced lower residues on leaves and fruit compared with the commercial formulation (C), although formulation E showed greater stability. This is probably due to the amount of the active ingredients that diffuse into the epicuticular wax layer thus enhancing photostability of azadirachtoids.
PMID: 19292469 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Immunoregulation and Immunodiagnostics, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute (CNCI), 37, S. P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700026, India.
Involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) release in CEAM phi NLGP (carcinoembryonic antigen pulsed macrophages with neem leaf glycoprotein) vaccination and its relationship with vaccine induced type 1 immune response were aimed to study in the present communication. Vaccination with CEAM phi NLGP resulted in macrophage activation as evidenced by its increased number and expression of CD69 marker. Activated macrophages demonstrated upregulation in synthesis of IL-12 and downregulation in IL-10, along with excess IFN gamma production in splenic cells, as evidenced from mRNA analysis. Induction of such type 1 immunity was further confirmed by expression of type 1 specific transcription factor, T-bet and enhancement of intracellular glutathione content. Such vaccination also induced greater nitric oxide (NO) production from macrophages. Dependence of induced type 1 immune response on the NO release and vice versa was studied by in vitro neutralization of IFN gamma/IL-12 and in vivo inhibition of NO production by methylene blue. Obtained results clearly demonstrated the interdependence of two anti-tumor immune functions, namely, NO production and generation of type 1 immune response. Understanding of the mechanism of this NO related immune modulation would have great impact in proposing CEAM phi NLGP vaccine in clinic for the treatment of CEA+ tumors.
PMID: 19285575 [PubMed - in process]
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
Neem sawdust (Azadirachta indica) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of malachite green dye from an aqueous solution. The studies were carried out under various experimental conditions such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorption dose, pH and temperature to assess the potentiality of neem sawdust for the removal of malachite green dye from wastewater. A greater percentage of dye removal was observed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent. The adsorption of dye on neem sawdust was found to follow a gradual process. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by the Langmuir models of adsorption and were applicable with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 4.354mgg(-1). The dimensionless factor, R(L) of the malachite green, neem sawdust isotherm revealed that the adsorption process is favourable in nature.
PMID: 19268452 [PubMed - in process]
Unidade Laboratorial de Patologia Avícola, Centro Avançado de Pesquisa Tecnológica do Agronegócio Avícola, Instituto Biológico, SP, Brasil.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.
PMID: 19265573 [PubMed - in process]
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